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The information we collect and how we use it;
Your rights to access or update your personally identifiable information;
Your right to opt-out of receiving communications from us; and
Our pledge to have reasonable security measures in place to protect against the loss, misuse or alteration of information under our control.
INFORMATION COLLECTION AND USE
Barnes Group web sites collect two kinds of information from you: personal information that you choose to supply us and non-personal information such as your IP address. To learn how to opt-out of receiving further information from Barnes Group, see the section marked “CHOICES” below.
1. Personal Information
a. E-mail. If you submit feedback, questions or requests for information about Barnes Group products and services, we may request your name, mailing address, telephone number and e-mail address in order to respond to your inquiries. Barnes Group may collect and store the information you choose to provide us to send you information about Barnes Group from time to time.
b. Surveys and Promotions. From time to time, we may request information from you via surveys or online promotions such as contests and sweepstakes. Participation is completely voluntary; you have a choice whether or not to disclose any information. Information requested may include personal contact information such as your name, shipping address, phone number or e-mail address. This information may be used to contact users with further information about Barnes Group products and services, to notify winners and award prizes, and to monitor or improve use and satisfaction of this site.
c. Financial Information E-mail Notifications. If you would like to receive company financial information alerts from Barnes Group, we ask for your e-mail address so we can send you e-mail notification.
d. Order Reports. If you would like to receive printed annual reports, proxy statements or quarterly reports by postal mail, you may ask for a copy on our web site. We ask for your contact information so we can send you such reports and statements.
2. Non-Personally Identifiable Information
a. Cookies. A cookie is a piece of data placed on your hard drive when you visit our site. Cookies help us track traffic to our site, helping us identify what parts of our site interest visitors most. We do not link cookie information with any personally identifiable information.
b. IP Addresses. An IP Address is a number used by computers on a network to identify your computer so that data can be transmitted to you. We may collect IP Address information in order to administer our web sites and to gather broad demographic information.
3. Information Sharing
Certain Barnes Group web sites may use a third party vendor for order processing. When you visit a Barnes Group online catalog to browse or to purchase Barnes Group goods online, you will leave a web site of Barnes Group and be taken to a web site operated by the third party vendor. This third party vendor will collect your personal information, including name, address and credit card information, solely for the purpose of informing Barnes Group of your order and effectuating the order fulfillment. This third party vendor will not use your information for any purpose other than to facilitate your online relationship with Barnes Group. Barnes Group may also share your personally and non-personally identifiable information with third parties that help manage our web sites and databases, and with our third-party affiliates, partners and sponsors. In addition, we may disclose information about you (i) if we are required to do so by law or legal process, (ii) to law enforcement authorities or other government officials, (iii) to protect and defend the rights or property of Barnes Group and this site; or (iv) when we believe disclosure is necessary or appropriate to prevent physical harm or financial loss or in connection with an investigation of suspected or actual illegal activity.
Barnes Group provides you with the following choices regarding the use of your information:
You may set your browser to: (1) inform you when cookies are being set before a cookie is stored; (2) not accept cookies at all; and (3) erase all cookies from your hard drive. However, if you choose to reject or erase cookies, your ability to navigate this site may be limited.
You may choose to not provide us with any contact information. However, if you do so, we will be unable to process your orders, respond to your inquiries, or enter you into any promotions. Furthermore, your ability to navigate this site may be impaired.
If you would like to opt-out of receiving further information from us and would like us to remove your from our on-line mailing list, please send an e-mail to email@example.com. Please include your name and e-mail address in the body of the e-mail and reference “Remove” on the subject line.
If you would like to change or modify information you have previously provided us, please send an e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Barnes Group Inc.
Attn: Director, Investor Relations
123 Main Street
Bristol, CT 06010
NOTIFICATION OF CHANGES
SPECIAL POLICY WITH REGARD TO INFORMATION FROM CHILDREN UNDER THIRTEEN
Barnes Group is not targeted to children under the age of 13, and we do not knowingly collect personally identifiable information from any child under the age of 13 without parental consent. When we do receive such information, we delete it as soon as we discover it and we do not use it or share it with third parties.
We make every effort to have reasonable security procedures in place to protect the loss, misuse or alteration of information under our control. Additionally, our third party vendor uses Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) technology to collect and transmit your information to use. If you have any questions about the security of our web sites, please contact email@example.com
Last updated 7/29/2008
Small quantities are considered prototype quantities and cannot be returned since the cost of re–inspecting and handling them is generally higher than the value of the parts. Larger quantities may not be returnable depending on the ability to re–sell these parts within a reasonable time period. Special runs are not returnable.
All returns must be authorized and an Authorization Number is required. Please contact our Customer Service at firstname.lastname@example.org or by phone at 419–891–9292. Unauthorized returns will be returned at customer’s expense.
All authorized returns must be in their original packaging and labeling to ensure lot control integrity. Parts cannot be altered or used in any fashion. Parts from separate lots cannot be mixed.
A restocking fee will be charged to authorized returns. Additional charges may be required for re–inspection, cleaning and repackaging. Credit for damaged parts will not be issued. All returns will be shipped to the authorized return center pre–paid by sender. Actual credit issued will be for the quantity of acceptable parts at the original piece price, less the restocking charge, less the original freight and any other charges that are necessary to return the parts to a saleable condition.
Sales Tax will be charged on the full amount of each order, but not on the shipping & handling charges. All orders with billing addresses in the following states are subject to Sales Taxes:
- New Jersey
- New Mexico
Shipping & Handling Policy
You can choose to have your order shipped via UPS Next Day Air©, UPS 2nd Day Air© or UPS Ground©. Shipping charges are prepaid and added to invoices by default. After receipt of your order, all ground and air orders entered before the shipping deadline will generally be shipped the same day. If received after the shipping deadline, your order will generally be shipped the following business day.
Because Associated Spring RAYMOND ships FOB origination within the United States, the risk of loss transfers to you when we deliver the goods to the carrier. Insurance is available at your expense to insure against loss or unusual damage (not currently available for online orders). It is not automatically included in the shipping charges.
The exact amount of the Shipping & Handling charges will show during the checkout process & on your order confirmation.
Terms of Sale
With respect to goods purchased by Buyer from Seller (“Goods”), no contract exists until Buyer places order for delivery and such order is accepted by Seller's acknowledging receipt of the order, by Seller's commencement of work on the Goods ordered, or by Seller's shipment of the Goods, whichever occurs first. Any acceptance will be limited to the express terms contained on the face hereof. Additional or different terms in Buyer's form or any attempt by Buyer to vary in any degree any of the terms of this quotation shall be deemed material and are objected to and rejected, but this shall not prevent the formation of a contract between Buyer and Seller unless such variances are in the terms of the description, quantity, price or delivery schedule of the goods, and the order shall be deemed accepted by Seller without said additional or different terms.
All agreements are contingent upon strikes, accidents and other reasons for delay beyond Seller's control
Where a separate charge is made for specially designed tools and dies, Seller will maintain such tools and dies without further cost to Buyer for the life of such tool or die so long as the part remains active and the design is not changed and Seller will not use such tools and dies for others without Buyer's permission, but Buyer acquires no right to remove any such tools or dies from Seller's factory.
Seller warrants to Buyer that the Goods purchased by Buyer from Seller shall be free from defects in material and workmanship. This warranty is the only warranty applicable to the Goods. THERE ARE NO OTHER WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE WHICH ARE HEREBY DISCLAIMED.
All Goods shall be inspected by Buyer when received and Seller shall not be liable for any defect unless notified in writing within 60 days after delivery.
Seller's liability for breach of warranty shall be limited solely and exclusively to repairing or replacing, at Seller's option, the defective Goods. In no event shall the liability of Seller for breach of any contractual provision relating to the Goods exceed the purchase price of the Goods quoted herein. In no event shall Seller be liable for any special, incidental or consequential damages arising out of Buyer's use or sale of the Goods or Seller's breach of any contractual provisions relating to the Goods, including but not limited to any loss of profits or production by Buyer. Any action resulting from any breach by Seller must be commenced within one year after the cause of action accrued.
Except to the extent caused by Seller's breach of warranty, Buyer shall indemnify and hold harmless Seller, its employees, officers and directors, and their respective successors and assigns, (collectively, “Indemnities”) from and against any and all liability, damages, claims, causes of action, losses, costs and expenses (including attorneys' fees) of any kind (collectively, “Damages”) arising out of injuries to any person (including death) or damage to any property caused by or related to the Goods or any negligent act or omission of Buyer, its employees or agents. Buyer shall indemnify and hold harmless each of the Indemnities from and against any and all Damages, royalties and license fees arising from or for infringement of any patent by reason of any sale or use of the Goods or the manufacture of the Goods to Buyer's specifications or sample. Upon the tendering of any of the foregoing suits or claims to Buyer, Buyer shall defend the same at Buyer's expense. The foregoing obligations of Buyer shall apply whether Seller or Buyer defends such suits or claim.
Seller reserves the right to over and under ship by not more than 10% of specified quantity.
Small quantities are considered prototype quantities and cannot be returned since the cost of re-inspecting and handling them is generally higher than the value of the parts. Larger quantities may not be returnable depending on the ability to re-sell these parts within a reasonable time period. Special runs are not returnable. All returns must be authorized and an Authorization Number is required. Please contact our Customer Service at email@example.com or by phone at 419-891-9292. Unauthorized returns will be returned at customer's expense. All authorized returns must be in their original packaging and labeling to insure lot control integrity. Parts cannot be altered or used in any fashion. Parts from separate lots cannot be mixed. A restocking fee will be charged to authorized returns. Additional charges may be required for re-inspection, cleaning and repackaging. Credit for damaged parts will not be issued. All returns will be shipped to the authorized return center pre-paid by sender. Actual credit issued will be for the quantity of acceptable parts at the original piece price, less the restocking charge, less the original freight and any other charges that are necessary to return the parts to a saleable condition.
Your credit or debit card will not be charged until your item(s) is shipped, at which time we will email you tracking information
Before your item(s) is shipped, your debit or credit card statement may show what looks like a deduction from your account. Please note, these funds have not been deducted but are being reserved within your account to ensure your order can be processed. This is known as an "authorization hold" and typically lasts from 3-7 days, depending upon the policy of your bank
Set RemovedA process of compressing springs after initial manufacturing so that the performance of the spring is stable afterwards. The physical height of the spring is reduced during this process, and loads at any given height will be different before and after.
Shot-Peening / Shot-PeenedA process of inducing surface level stresses in material to improve fatigue life. Small particles are impacted into the surface, like steel balls, to create the surface stresses.
Passivation / PassivizedA process of making materials less affected by environmental factors. The outer layer of material is protected from corrosion, and is common for stainless steels.
Squared Not GroundRefers to the ends of springs that have been "squared", which means the spring end wire loops are perpendicular to the length.
Squared And GroundRefers to ends of springs that have been "squared & ground", which means the end wire loop was first aligned perpendicular to the length and then ground flat.
OpenRefers to ends of compression springs that are left open or have no special end configruation
Spring RateRefers to property of the spring which is the amount of force per unit deflection of the spring. Spring rates are approximately constant, but the acceptable range of travel for the spring rate to be valid varies by spring type.
Load at HeightRefers to a specific amount of force a spring will provide when at a specific height.
Load at LengthRefers to a specific amount of force a spring will provide when at a specific length.
Load at FlatRefers to a specific amount of force a spring will provide when compressed completely flat.
Free LengthRefers to the natural or resting length of a spring.
Free HeightRefers to the natural or resting height of a spring.
Free Fit Over RodRefers to the largest size of a mandrel (or shaft, or rod) over which a spring will slide.
Free Fit in PocketRefers to the smallest size of a hole (or pocket) into which a spring will slide & operate within.
Wire DiameterRefers to the diameter of the wire from which the spring is made.
Take a SetRefers to the process of a spring being compressed beyond normally acceptable stress levels and actually reducing the free length or free height of the spring.
StrokeRefers to the nominal amount of displacement (motion) acceptable for a strut, gas spring, drawer slides, etc.
Full Twist LoopsRefers to the ends of extension springs and the loops on the ends. Full twist loops provide a single full loop or approximately full circle for attachment.
Double Full LoopsRefers to the ends of extension springs and the loops on the ends. Double full loops provide two continuous loops of wire or approximately two complete circles for attachment.
Coned End with Swivel HookRefers to the ends of extension springs and the loops on the ends. Swivel hooks can rotate independent of the spring body. Coned ends retain the swivel hook to the extension spring.
Half LoopRefers to the ends of extension springs and the loops on the ends. Half loops provide a half loop or approximately half circle of material for attachment.
Plain FinishIs the normal finish of material from which the parts are made.
Active CoilsRefers to the number of coils within a spring which actively participate in providing spring force. Dead coils and Active coils add up to the total number of coils in a spring.
Dead CoilsRefers to the number of coils within a spring which do not actively participate in providing spring force, generally associated with the ends of the spring. Dead coils and Active coils add up to the total number of coils in a spring.
Right Hand WoundRefers to the helix direction of a spring. When viewing a right hand wound spring from the end, the last coil will stop in a counter-clockwise direction.
Left Hand WoundRefers to the helix direction of a spring. When viewing a right hand wound spring from the end, the last coil will stop in a clockwise direction.
Initial TensionRefers to the amount of force required to gain the initial separation in an extension spring.
Solid HeightRefers to the minimum height allowed based on material in a spring. Solid Height's should not be used for applications, as frequently the solid height represents a deflection well beyond the normal operating range of spring.
Closed EndsSee Squared Not Ground
Closed And Ground EndsSee Squared And Ground
TorqueRepresents a rotational force or twist. Is equal to the multiple of the perpendicular linear force and the lever arm length of such force.
Belleville / Belleville Spring WasherSee Disc Spring
Disc SpringA type of "flat spring" commonly referred to as a "disc spring" or "conical disc spring" that is made from flat material stock and resembles a flat washer that was formed over a cone.
DIN 2093A DIN specification for disc springs; covering size, expected life, etc.
Compression SpringA type of spring that when "compressed" provides a force to return the spring to the resting length.
Extension SpringA type of spring that when "extended" provides a force to return the spring to the resting length.
Conical Compression SpringA type of compression spring where the outer diameter grows over the length of the spring. Such springs have lower solid height's because the springs nest upon compression.
Flat SpringRefers to a series of springs made from flat material stock.
Curved Spring WasherRefers to a spring type that resembles a flat washer that was formed over a cylinder.
Finger Spring WasherRefers to a spring type that resembles a flat washer with small bent fingers on the ID & OD.
ScraggingSee Set Removed
ISO 10243An ISO specification for Die Springs; covering size, color, expected life, etc.
JIS B 5012A JIS specification for Die Springs; covering size, color, expected life, etc.
Stainless SteelA material family that has additional Chromium content, relative to Steel, that provides additional corrosion protection. Different grades of stainless steel provide different properties, and must be selected to match the application.
Spring SteelRefers to a group of steels that are commonly used to make springs.
Music WireRefers to a type of steel commonly used to make springs.
DurometerRefers to a measurement of hardness of material, typically associated with plastics.
StressRefers to the internal forces experienced within the object. Stresses are increased with increased deflection of a spring. Stresses beyond acceptable levels permanently change the free state of the part and/or fracture the part.
StampedRefers to a manufacturing process where originally flat stock is introduced into a press to make formed (stamped) parts.
ForgedRefers to a manufacturing process where pieces of material are formed at elevated temperatures via a die or a series of dies into formed (forged) parts.
CoiledRefers to a manufacturing process where material, typically round, is wound into a coil.
Leaf / LeavesFor a hinge, the leaves refer to the flat portions on either side of the hinge
PinFor a hinge, the pin refers to the small piece of material down the center of the hinge holding the two halves together.
KnuckleFor a hinge, the knuckles refers to the alternating pieces of material that are held together by the pin.
Swaged / SwagingFor a hinge, swaging refers to offsetting the leaf or leaves from the tangent orientation. Swaged hinges have the leaves closer together upon closing than non-swaged hinges.
Unequal LeavesFor a hinge, this refers to having two leaves of unequal size.
Equal LeavesFor a hinge, this refers to having two leaves of equal size.
Staked PinFor a hinge, a staked pin indicates the pin is held in place via staking of the knuckles and cannot be removed.
Loose PinFor a hinge, a loose pin indicates the pin is not held in place and can be removed if desired.
Tight PinFor a hinge, a tight pin indicates the pin is held in place only by a tight fit, or friction, and can be removed still if desired.
Spun on EndFor a hinge, spun on end indicates a pin that has had the ends enlarged (spun) such that the pin is permanently installed.
Zinc PlateZinc plate is a plating or coating that is applied to materials for enhanced corrosion protection. It is typically applied to steels.
Nickel PlateNickel plate is a plating or coating that applies nickel to the surface of materials, typically steels.
Brass PlateBrass plate is a plating or coating that applies brass to the surface of materials.
Lift OffFor a hinge, lift off refers to a style where the door or panel can be lifted off with the upper half of the hinge if required.
Slip OnFor a hinge, slip on refers to a style of hinge where the two halves "slip together".
FlagFor a hinge, flag refers to leaves that are completely offset. Typically flag hinges can rotate 360 degrees if nothing impedes this rotation in the application.
BrushedRefers to a finish type where the material has a directional satin finish, it can be thought of as small scratches in a structured implementation.
Mill FinishRefers to the standard finish of the material as it left the mill.
Polished FinishRefers to a finish type where the material has a shiny mirror like surface.
Satin FinishRefers to a finish type where the material has a dull surface.
Counter SunkRefers to a hole type which has a tapered bottom and accommodates flat head screws.
Counter BoreRefers to a hole type which has a flat bottom and accommodates screw types like socket head screws.
Integrated System, "Black Box"
If your OEM application requires something to get it working, either a single part or sub-assembly, and you need assistance designing and validating this, Associated Spring RAYMOND can assist you. Simply let us know as many details as possible about the functional requirements so our engineers can understand the application. The "Black Box" approach means our experienced team does the work, designing, specifying, manufacturing, & validating. If you need a confidentiality agreement we routinely sign bi-lateral agreements to protect sensitive information. Through this process our engineers have assisted OEM engineers develop & bring to market great product advancements as well as completely new products.
Pre-load refers to a state of a spring in a cyclical application. When the spring cycles in the application it goes from its longest length/tallest height to the shortest length/height. The point with the longest length/tallest height in the application will determine the "pre-load". This refers to the loading of the spring at this point. For optimal life the pre-load needs to be matched carefully to the shortest length/height, but in general the spring should not be allowed to return to the free length/height in a cyclical application. This is because the change in stresses between the operating extremes will be significantly increased when using the free state of the spring instead of a "pre-load". Associated Spring RAYMOND engineer's can help minimize stresses to maximize life for your OEM application, simply contact us.
Stacking Disc Springs
Disc Springs are both components and modular systems, as they can be used individually or as a set of parts. Associated Spring RAYMOND offers the widest variety of disc springs, including Clover®Dome. Stacking parts allows for an infinite number of force-deflection curves. In general there are two directions to stack parts (although both can be combined). Parts stacked in series are placed in alternating orientations, and offer N x the deflection for the same load as one part, where N is the number of parts in the stack. Parts stacked in parallel are placed in the same orientation, and offer N x the force for the same deflection, where N is the number of parts in the stack. Associated Spring RAYMOND engineers can help to define a complete stack for your OEM application, simply contact us.
Corrosion is damage to materials, rust on steel is an example of corrosion. The level of corrosion protection required is application specific, and the type of corrosion will also vary. Carbon Steels (Music Wire, Spring Steel, Chrome Vanadium, etc.) without a coating are the least protected. Stainless Steels & Exotic Alloys offer protection from various agents. Coatings offer a means to supplement corrosion protection without changing materials. In some cases changing materials is not possible because of the forces, stresses, or other design parameters required by the application. In this case selecting a coating for parts may be the only option to achieve the desired part life. Coatings may also be more cost effective than substituting material. Associated Spring RAYMOND engineers can help to define the best material & coating for your OEM application, simply contact us. Standard parts can also easily be coated with most coatings.
Stress Levels Cause Spring Failures
Stresses in materials are one source of failure for springs. Reducing stresses is always optimal in designs where possible. Some ways to reduce stress (assuming everything else is held constant in the design) include:
- Use a thicker material or larger wire diameter
- Use a larger spring (larger outer diameter)
- Increase the pre-load of the spring (cyclical)
- Decrease the maximum deflection (cyclical)
- Reduce the amount of deflection in the application (Static)
Additionally the life of a spring can be extended with the same conditions/parameters with the following:
- Changing the material or alloy
- Special Heat Treatment Processes
- Advanced surface finishing processes"
ITAR or International Traffic in Arms Regulations are laws set in place by the United States Government controlling the export as well as import of defense related materials. Associated Spring RAYMOND may require customers to sign end use documentation, depending on product & technology, in order to remain in compliance with United States Laws.
SPM 15 or International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures No 15 refers to standards for treating wood materials utilized for shipping goods between countries. To the best of our knowledge, Associated Spring RAYMOND is in compliance with “ISPM 15”.
Please note that it is our company’s policy to not sign individual compliance requirements. Feel free to transfer the necessary information into your format(s) as your company sees fit.
Based upon a review of our company’s product specifications and the specifications reported by our suppliers, to the best of our knowledge, the components or parts listed under the catalog product lines attached, currently manufactured do not contain any of the following substances in levels that would violate the “Directive 2002/95/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 27 January 2003, on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances (RoHs) in electrical and electronic equipment” in effect today, nor do we supply articles containing any substance from the SVHC list or Candidate List of SVHC for Authorization:
Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Hexavalent Chromium, Polybrominated Biphenyls (PBB) or Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PDBE), decabrominated diphenl ether (DecaBDE), Arsenic pentoxide (diarsenic pentaoxide), Arsenic trioxide (diarsenic trioxide, 4.4’-Diaminodiphenylmethane (MDA), Cobalt(II) chloride (cobalt dichloride), Lead hydrogen arsenate, Sodium dichromate, Triethyl arsenate, Benzyl butylphthalate (BBT), Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Dibutylphthalate (DBP), Anthracene, Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) including all major diastereomers, Short chanin chlorinated paraffins (C10-C13 chloroalkanes SCCP), Tributyltin oxide (Bis(tributyltin) oxide, TBTO), Musk xylene (5-tert-butyl-2,4,6-trinitro-m-xylene).
Please note that it is our company’s policy to not sign individual compliance requirements. Feel free to transfer the necessary information into your format(s) as your company sees fit.
DFARS Certified Material
DFARs or Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement, is a regulation the DOD or Department of Defense purchases materials in accordance with. As it pertains to material sourcing, specialty metals must be purchased from a US source or authorized source. Unfortunately, at this time, Associated Spring RAYMOND’s global manufacturing presence restricts its ability to commit to DFARS 252.225-7014 Alternate I on standard products.
If, after further review, you determine that your product must conform to DFARS 252.225-7014 Alternate I, please contact us for a special order at 1-800-228-1156. When inquiring, please ensure that your paperwork clearly indicates the DFARS 252.225-7014 Alternate I requirement. Once we receive your inquiry, we will evaluate them on a case-by-case basis and respond as quickly as possible to custom manufacture your product.
Proper Orientation of Gas Struts (Gas Springs)
Gas struts and dampers have seals. In order for the seal life to be as designed the struts must be installed in the proper orientation. For whichever position is most often occurring in the application, the rod end of the strut should be installed lower that the body. This helps keep oil on the seal for lubrication purposes. For example if a hood spends most of the time closed, it is important the rod be lower than the body in the closed position.
Differences between a Gas Strut (Gas Spring) & a Hydraulic Damper
Certain strut types are often confused. Gas struts, sometimes referred to as gas springs or gas shocks, provide a force. Dampers on the other hand only provide a reactionary force to slow motion. For example a damper would prevent a lid from lowering quickly, where as a gas strut could be used to push a lid up.
Installation & Removal of Gas Struts (Gas Springs)
Installing or Removing Gas Struts is typically very simple. Any anti-removal/safety devices, like a safety clip or circlip must be first removed. Then typically the ends simply pull off. For a video demonstration of strut installation & removal from various end fittings see this video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tki45RTWZnM
Matching Struts & Accessories
Struts (Gas Struts, Dampers, etc.) often utilize mounting hardware. Typically the ends of struts are threaded, and may or may not be supplied with end fittings mounted on the threads. End fittings can be exchanged with another end fitting with the same thread. M6, M8, & M10 threads (male) are common strut threads. End fittings must have a mating thread, typically female, of the same size. Mounting a strut with end fittings already installed depends on the type of end fitting. End fittings are typically designed to be used with a ball stud (most common) or shoulder bolt. For ball stud end fittings as long as the ball size is the same on the end fitting and the ball stud or bracket the pair is compatible.
Operating Deflection Range
Generally springs have an acceptable deflection range, meaning the spring will work properly if the deflections from the resting length or height are kept less than or equal to the operating range. When deflections exceed the maximum operating deflection the life of the spring will be reduced, sometimes drastically. It is possible to design a different spring with a greater operating deflection range by changing various parameters of the design.
Operating Temperature Range
Generally springs, struts, dampers, and other products have an acceptable operating temperature range. This range is dependent upon the materials used in construction, including any seals. Higher range materials are generally available for special applications requiring such, but typically cost more.